This information is for farmers and gardeners who want to understand the physical, chemical, and biological components of healthy soil and how to manage them. Soil is a critical resource—the way in which it is managed can improve or degrade the quality of that resource. Soil is a complex ecosystem where living microorganisms and plant roots bind mineral particles and organic matter together into a dynamic structure that regulates water, air, and nutrients.
In an agricultural context, soil health most often refers to the ability of the soil to sustain agricultural productivity and protect environmental resources. A healthy soil provides many functions that support plant growth, including nutrient cycling, biological control of plant pests, and regulation of water and air supply. These functions are influenced by the interrelated physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil, many of which are sensitive to soil management practices.
Nutrient cycling refers to the many pathways through which nutrients are added to, removed from, and changed within the soil. Organic forms of nutrients contain carbon in the structure of the molecule, while inorganic forms do not. Nutrients are stored in several pools within the soil: as inorganic forms in soil particles, as organic forms in soil organic matter, as inorganic forms on cation exchange sites, and as organic and inorganic forms dissolved in the water surrounding soil particles, known as the soil solution.
Soil solution: Inorganic and a few types of organic nutrients dissolved in the soil pore water are immediately available to plants. Cation exchange sites: Nutrients with a positive charge are known as cations. Macronutrient cations are needed by plants in large quantities and include calcium, magnesium, and potassium.
Negatively charged sites on clay and organic matter retain these positively charged plant nutrients. Nutrients on cation exchange sites are available to plants in the near term.
The quantity of cation exchange sites in a given soil is termed cation exchange capacity CEC. Organic matter: Organic matter is composed of living and once-living material e.
The availability of nutrients to plants in the near to long term depends on the type of organic matter and the activity of soil organisms. Decomposition is the breakdown of organic matter into simpler organic and inorganic compounds through processes carried out by soil organisms.
Mineralization is the release of plant-available forms of nutrients that occurs when soil organisms decompose organic matter. Soil minerals: Nutrients in the mineral component of soils become available to plants in the very long term.
The management goal for a healthy agricultural soil is to supply the nutrients needed for optimal plant growth in the right quantity and at the right time while minimizing nutrient losses to the surrounding environment. Nutrients in the soil can change forms through many different nutrient cycling processes.
A low spot in this field collected standing water during several weeks of rainy weather in early summer. While the soil was saturated, nitrogen was lost to the atmosphere through a process called denitrification, resulting in a patch of nitrogen-deficient, yellowish corn.
Soil organic matter is a storehouse of several plant nutrients, including nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. Every 1 percentage point of organic matter in the top 6 inches of soil contains about 1, pounds of nitrogen, pounds of phosphorus, and pounds of sulfur per acre. However, most nutrients in organic matter are not directly available to plants. To be used by plants, nutrients in organic matter must be converted to inorganic forms through decomposition and mineralization by soil organisms.Learn something new every day More Info Crop production management refers to the various processes applied toward the effective cultivation and harvesting of crops.
Such a management system usually includes considerations regarding the selection of the crop to plant, the preparation of the land where the crop will be planted, the application of fertilizers and pesticides, and other practices aimed at improving crop yields like irrigation. These practices may be vary slightly depending on the type of crop under consideration due to the fact that different types of crops grow at different rates and are subject to different growing conditions and attacks by insects and diseases.
One of the first considerations in crop production management is of the determination of the type of crop to be planted in the designated land. The reason why this is important is because different crops require specific growing conditions, meaning that crops that do well in certain types of soil will not prosper when they are cultivated in other types of soil.
Also, the climate plays an important role in the growth of crops, dictating the type of crops that can be successfully cultivated in different geographical areas. After the crop has been selected and the land has been prepared by tillingthe crop will be planted according to the specifications for planting such a crop, including the observation of the proper spacing between individual plants.
In order for crops to grow very well, it may be necessary to apply some form of fertilizer as a nutrient boost. This aspect of crop production management is also one that requires a careful analysis of the type of crop in relation to the kind of fertilizer that may be applied to that particular crop. The reason for this is because there are specific fertilizers for different crops, and there are specific types that may be used at various stages of plant growth. Apart from the application of fertilizers, pest management must be included in crop production management.
This will require the application of pesticides that target the particular pest for that particular crop. Effective crop production management also requires the constant removal of weeds from the land since they tend to proliferate very fast and compete with legitimate crop. Other considerations include the practice of irrigation as a means of providing moisture when this is an issue. The proper harvesting of such a crop and the storage of the same will also be a part of crop management.
Crop management is something that people need to do at home as well. Even if you've only got a small vegetable garden, you need to take into account the fact that it's a bad idea to grow the same kinds of plants in the same soil year after year.
What Is Crop Production Management?
If you do, they tend to build up diseases and the soil gets exhausted. You're much better off either rotating them, or spacing them out rather than growing all the same kind of plant in the same spot.
Neatness isn't necessarily a virtue when it comes to vegetables and mixing up your patch can make it much healthier, since it will confuse any pests and will ensure that no one spot in your garden ends up with the same kind of plant year after year. KoiwiGal Post 2 pleonasm - That's true of some farmers, but with the organic movement becoming stronger, I'm hoping that crop management is going to become better as they embrace permaculture rather than the mass cropping techniques used at the moment.
The only problem is that instead of actually trying to go with the spirit of being organic, a lot of farmers are instead trying to get around the legalities of it, by either labeling their stuff organic when it isn't, or using practices that might as well not be organic, even if they are considered to be so. It really needs to be done differently, with an eye to maintaining production over the years, rather than the way it's often done now, which is to get the maximum yield every single time.
That's how ground gets worn out very quickly and you end up having to put more and more fertilizers onto it. Crop management should be treated as a complex process of interacting with local conditions and instead it becomes a matter of battling them with the goal of producing as much as possible. Post your comments Post Anonymously Please enter the code:. One of our editors will review your suggestion and make changes if warranted.
Note that depending on the number of suggestions we receive, this can take anywhere from a few hours to a few days. Thank you for helping to improve wiseGEEK!The combination, timing, and sequence of the practices used depend on the biological characteristics of the crops whether winter or spring cropsthe harvested form grains, green feed, and so onthe sowing methods row, nest, or wide-rowthe age of the plants, and the soil, climatic, and weather conditions.
The principal crop-managing practices vary according to the class of crops. Winter crops require autumn topdressing with mineral fertilizers to improve winterhardiness of the plants, snow retention, spring topdressing, and harrowing. Solid-planted spring crops call for harrowing and topdressing; in arid regions they additionally need soil packing after planting.
For row crops in preemergence, the crust of the soil must be broken up with harrows or rotary hoes; interrow tillage, blocking, thinning of sprouts, and topdressing are also indicated in the postemergence period. Perennial grasses require harrowing in the spring, harrowing after mowing, and topdressing. Special crop-managing practices for individual crops include hilling, suckering, pinching, and chopping.
Other field practices include crop irrigation and mechanical, biological, and chemical methods of combating weeds, pests, and diseases. Crop management in the USSR is almost entirely mechanized. Mentioned in?
References in periodicals archive? CCMG to review cotton crop on Aug Its purpose is to develop and demonstrate the most sustainable crop management systems suitable for Qatar to the local farming community. Focus on 'fertigation' to increase output. Talking to media here on Friday after attending a meeting of the Cotton Crop Management Group, Tareen said that he had attended the meeting on the invitation of provincial agriculture minister Malik Nauman Langrial.
Wheat growers to get good price: Tareen. UAF offers 20 short courses. Precision agriculture takes advantage of the ability to identify within-field spatial variability and to use this information for more targeted crop management.
Here agriculture specialists explain how to use this approach to use resources more efficiently, make agriculture more productive and sustainable, and reduce its environmental impact.
Precision Agriculture for Sustainability. More than 40 farmers including students from all wide Pakistan got training on greenhouse establishment, crop sowing, crop management and harvesting of fruit special emphasis on tomatoes and capsicum production technology.
Workshop on soil-less farming held at Arid varsity. According to Ejaz, the government should ensure low cost of inputs to cotton farmers, provide quality cotton seeds and extension for best crop management and extension without any further delay. In the afternoon, participants will travel to nearby Carter Farms to see a standing cover crop and learn cover crop management and soil sampling techniques. Workshop to address cover crops, soil health. This 53 year old manufacturer of irrigation equipment produces drippers, dripper lines, sprinklers and micro-emitters along with various crops management technologies like crop management soft-wares, dosing systems and control and monitoring systems.
Israel to gift units of digital farming to Gujarat. Pangasinan-based local farmer technicians LFTs were trained by the Philippine Rice Research Institute PhilRice on proper crop management to help their province sustain and even improve its rice production. PRRI trains Pangasinan farm techs on crop management. Vovk stressed that the Azerbaijani government pays unprecedented attention to the development of the agro-industrial complex, including intensification of agricultural production through the use of modern mineral fertilizers and crop management technologies.
Russian distributor of mineral fertilizers to up supplies to Azerbaijan. Encyclopedia browser? Full browser?The traditional spate irrigation is a profitable agricultural activity under the following circumstances. There are many uncertainties in the system. Very important of all, the occurrences and magnitude of spate flood is unpredictable. The irrigation structures are temporary and are easily washed or damaged by floods. The safety of irrigation structures is dependent on the magnitude of the spate flood.
Maintenance and repair of the spate irrigation system is quite frequent and laborious, because of which the farmers have little time for other agricultural activities. Weed and pest infestation are common problems. Land preparation: In the spate irrigated farms, land preparation is carried out for the following objectives: a To minimize soil moisture loses by evaporation b To prepare good seed bed and to sow crops c To control weeds Based on the above objectives, land preparation activities can be classified into two major parts: Pre — Irrigation ploughing Nekli and.
Post — irrigation ploughing. The soil is ploughed to break the dry and usually compacted soil surface.
Best Management Practices
The purpose of the pre-irrigation ploughing or Nekli is to break the hard and dry soil surface, so that the floodwater will infiltrate the soil quickly before much of it is lost by evaporation or by draining through broken field bunds. After irrigation every deposit of sediments seal the soil surface. Thus, if a field receive very small mount of floodwater and some more irrigation water is expected, the ploughing may be repeated for the second time.
Mekemet is practiced after the field receives irrigation water and when the soil surface is just dry enough to allow ploughing. The land is first ploughed to break the crested and compacted soil surface.
A cylindrical or flat wooden log, which is pulled by a pair of oxen, is then run over the whole field. The operator stands on the log as the oxen pull it. By this operation the soil is further broken into smaller pieces and at the same time the loose soil is compacted. The objective of this operation is to minimize soil moisture by evaporation. First, the dry and lose soil at the surface acts as a cover against the excessive heat of the sun thus reduce evaporation from the soil.
Secondly it breaks the capillary movement of the water inside the soil. The loose soil acts as a buffer between the inside part of the soil and the atmosphere. Ploughing for sowing and weed control: When crops are sown, normally the land is ploughed in order to soften the soil and prepare a good seed bed.
By this operation, weeds are destroyed. After this, no weeding is done manually or by cultivation. Eritrea - Ministry of Information Asmara - Eritrea. Main Menu. Home News Local News.To browse Academia. Skip to main content.
Log In Sign Up. IJAR Indexing. The study area is Published Online: July typical for the high potential coffee production, mixed farming, and cereal crops in the Southwestern Ethiopian highlands. Land is a precious natural Key words: resource which demands efficient management in order to use it in a sustainability, indigenous, land sustainable manner.
A cross sectional research design was employed with fragmentation, crop production descriptive survey method. In addition, thirteen key informants and nine household heads for FGD were selected by R.
Uttama Reddy purposive sampling technique. Data collection tools included questionnaire, focus group discussions, key informant interview and field observation.
The factors that affect sustainable land management include land holding size, fragmentation, land ownership security, size of livestock, and availability of labor and farm tools, and education of farmers. Finally, based on the findings of the study, it has been recommended that farmers need to get basic education and family planning services.
They have to be organized in team and get access to credit and saving services. The local knowledge of farmers has to be encouraged and supported through continuous training. A few selected breeds of livestock should be encouraged in order to reduce overgrazing. All rights reserved. The region is characterized by a very rich diversity of natural ecosystem resources, including soils, vegetation, water and genetic diversity.
It is from these assets that the provision of food, water, wood, fiber and industrial products, and essential ecosystem services and functions are derived. And they must be maintained in order to support African populations into the future. Simultaneously, it is from the land that 60 percent of the people directly derive their livelihoods - from agriculture, freshwater fisheries, forestry and other natural resources FAO, However, African land and water resources in some areas are seriously threatened through overuse although per capita availability is one of the highest in the world.
This is a direct result of the increasing needs of a growing population, combined, often, with inappropriate land management practices.
Thus, on one hand, the African population is growing at over two percent a year FAO,requiring a doubling of food production by to keep pace with demand; on the other hand, productivity of natural resources is in general in decline. Additionally, the number of natural disasters has increased and climate change is already taking its toll. There is a potentially devastating downward spiral of overexploitation and degradation, enhanced by the negative impacts of climate change - leading in turn to the reduced availability of natural resources and declining productivity: this jeopardizes food security and increases poverty.
Sustainable land management SLM is the anti- dote, helping to increase average productivity, reducing seasonal fluctuations in yields, and underpinning diversified production and improved incomes WOCAT, Location of Gimbi Woreda study area Research Design:- In designing a research, it is important to identify which philosophy or paradigm to follow. Research philosophy can be defined as the development of the research background, research knowledge and its nature Saunders and Thornhill, Research philosophy is also defined with the help of research paradigm.
In the words of Cohen, Manion and Morrisonresearch paradigm can be defined as the broad framework, which comprises perception, beliefs and understanding of several theories and practices that are used to conduct a research.
It can also be characterized as a precise procedure which involves various steps through which a researcher creates a relationship between the research objectives and questions. Accordingly, this research design belongs to the Positivist paradigm. The concept of Positivism is directly associated with the idea of objectivism. This study employed cross sectional research design with survey method. The study area, Gimbi woreda consisted of 32 kebeles.
In order to select and determine the sample Kebeles from the woreda, purposive sampling technique was employed. The author employed simple random sampling technique or the lottery method to select household heads from the three kebeles out of total For this purpose primary data were collected through household survey, key informants interview Focus Group Discussion and observation method.Results suggest current soybean management recommendations in Iowa need to be adjusted.
Improvements in efficiency and farmer profitability are expected if new recommendations are adapted. Localized recommendations may be required to optimize production across diverse Iowa soils. Weed control management: Experimental and registered herbicides were evaluated for crop phytotoxiciy and weed control in over 85 field studies. Herbicides were evaluated in genetically modified and specialty corn and soybeans. Crop phytotoxicity also was evaluted in corn inbreds. Differing application timings and tillage regimes were evaluated as well as management of pasture weeds and woody species.
Extent of phytotoxicity and weed control varied with herbicide mode of action and weed spectrum. Inbreds showed comparable crop safety for experimental herbicide with the same mode of action as registered herbicides. Weed seed dynamics: We tested the hypothesis that yield, weed suppression, and profit characteristics of low-external-input LEI cropping systems can match or exceed those of conventional systems. Corn and soybean yields were as high or higher in the LEI systems. Without subsidy payments, net returns were 4-yr system g.
With subsidies, differences in net returns were smaller, but rank order was maintained. Certain LEI systems can be economically competitive with conventional systems in regions of high production potential. Modeling reproductive development: We developed a new conceptual framework to link plant growth and time to silking by describing silking at the population level as a quantitative trait at and at the plant level as a qualitative trait.
This approach enabled us to visualize gaps in current knowledge essential to advance crop modeling of maize canopy phenology. It provides a foundation to evaluate genotype x environment interactions on time to silking, and a rational basis to identify and evaluate genes regulating flowering dynamics in maize. Failure to account for sink-limited kernel set contributes to simulation error under field conditions that affect pollen shed or silking. We developed algorithms for a Flowering Model to simulate sink-limited kernel set, calibrated it against kernel production in hybrid seed production fields, and then linked it to CERES-Maize, a corn yield model used globally.
Integrating the capacity to simulate sink limited kernel set with source-limited kernel set increased simulation accuracy dramatically. Modified CERES-Maize also accounted for a much greater range of variability in the biological processes controlling kernel set.
Mark Westgate. Principal Investigator. Provided research input on modeling maize reproductive development.In this study, on-farm within-season spread of Potato virus Y PVY was measured in 56 seed, processing and tablestock potato fields in New Brunswick, Canada between and These represented 13 potato varieties, managed by 16 growers employing a wide range of PVY control techniques.
Many aspects of management techniques were quantified, as well local aphid abundances and climatological data. Over the five seasons under study, on-farm PVY spread overall has declined substantially.
Factors correlated with increased PVY spread included seed-borne PVY inoculum planted in the field, aphid abundance early in the season, and to a lesser degree temperatures in July and over the preceding winter.
Factors correlated with decreased spread included numbers of foliar mineral oil and insecticide sprays especially of the lambda-cyhalothrin and flonicamid typeslater crop planting and earlier first spraying dates. A mid-season leaf test for PVY was shown to be strongly indicative of ultimate PVY spread at harvest, and may prove a useful test in advising growers.
A set of locally-relevant best management practices based on these results is discussed. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve.
Al-Mrabeh, A. A literature review of insecticide and mineral oil use in preventing the spread of non-persistent viruses in potato crops. Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board.
Bagnall, R. Epidemics of potato leaf roll in North America and Europe linked to drought and sunspot cycles. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology — Boquel, S.
Zhang, C. Goyer, M. Clark, and Y. Effect of insecticide-treated potato plants on aphid behavior and Potato Virus Y acquisition. Pest Management Science — Bradley, R. Moore, and D. Spread of Potato Virus Y curtailed by oil. Nature —
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